Samples are routinely digested for tests such as total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus, or for elemental analysis. Titrations are done for total residual chlorine and alkalinity. Other tests include 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), carbonaceous BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), settleable solids, total solids & ash, flashpoint, and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP).
Common tests that are conducted with the help of instrumentation include: ammonia, total & amenable cyanide, elemental analysis, hexavalent chromium, oil & grease, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, anions (fluoride, chloride, bromide, nitrite, nitrate, o-phosphate, & sulfate), total hardness, and total phenolics.
A variety of microbiological assays are performed routinely. The most common microbial assays are E. coli & total coliforms using a Quanti-Tray system and fecal coliforms by membrane filtration. Other microbial assays include heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and iron-related bacteria.